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The Geography of Holguin

Holguin, oriental county of Cuba, is characterized by a complicated and singular relief, related with the lithologic (rocks) and tectonic (structural) conditions. In the territory of Holguin it can be distinguished three main regions:

  • The plains that skirt the coast and central and south zone of the county of Holguin (Plain of Nipe and of the Cauto), with heights among 0.50 meters that present an abrasive character from the coast to the interior of the county, accumulative with fragments of marine terraces, beaches, in some sectors and marginal marshes with mangrove in others. The center and south zone, occupied by plains of marine origin, for what at the moment important rivers flow with the presence in ways and complex fluvial, presenting a marked development of alluvial deposits.
  • In the western sector of the county of Holguin, the wavy and hump eroded plains that skirt the system of elevations of Maniabón and they reach heights between 50 and 100 meters, with slopes between 0 and 8%. The valleys are aligned, the same as the chains of elevations toward the east and west, and the effects of the differential erosion are evident in the whole area. With heights between 100 and 300 meters, it appears the system of elevations or hills of Maniabón of singular morphology.
  • In the oriental sector of the county of Holguin, the areas pre-mountainous of Mayarí, Cristal Sierra and Sagua-Baracoa appears with heights between 100 and 300 meters and the mountainous areas of equal name, with heights between 300 and 750 meters and more whose bigger elevation is the Cristal’s Pick with 1 231 meters, culminating point of the county. These mountains constitute erosive tectonic blocks, where crusts of land elements appear, of high iron content, nickel and other minerals.

Considerable rivers runs the territory of Holguin, standing out Mayarí, Sagua de Tánamo and Nipe, the first one is that most extension with 106 Km of longitude, next to Sagua they are those of more flow, adding to it numerous rills and springs.